Hibiscus, which is also known as Sudanese rose, mallow, Sharon rose and even the flower of death, is considered by the botanists to be part of the Malvaceae family, and grows in nature on a vast territory. Plants of this genus are found in Asia Minor, Haiti, North Africa and the southern regions of Europe. The popularity of this plant among flower growers is due to the long flowering and ease of cultivation. The flowers and young leaves of this flower are used for food, and dried buds are used as a dye for hair.
Hibiscus is represented by many varieties. It can be a tree-like or grassy bush, or a small highly branched tree up to 4 meters high. Representatives of hibiscus are united by the following external features:
- the leaves are dark green glossy in indoor varieties, and matte due to slight pubescence in garden varieties;
- flowers of all species are single, funnel-shaped, of various colors - from white to dark purple;
- stems of all species are straight, branched to varying degrees, strong enough and strong;
- the root system is fibrous, consists of very strong thick roots of white or yellowish-gray color.
Most members of the genus are deciduous shrubs that need a short rest period. At this time, they need cold maintenance with reduced watering. Among them there are evergreen species that grow well at home.
Types and varieties of hibiscus
Thanks to selection, many varieties of hibiscus have been bred, the mother plants of which are natural plant species. Especially rich species diversity of garden Chinese roses - even in Russian gardens about three dozen species are grown. If we add to this about a hundred varieties, then hibiscus can be easily ranked among the most diverse garden crops.
In room culture, there is also a large species diversity: there are compact plants and rather large trees, which are best grown in greenhouses.
The following types of Chinese roses are considered the most popular among Russian flower growers:
|View name||Description||Suitable growing conditions|
|Hibiscus syrian||It is grown in the form of a stem or a small compact shrub. It grows to a meter and a half in height. It blooms in single colors of white, pink or lilac in various saturations.||A garden view that feels good in the open ground and winters without special shelter. Warming is required only for young immature plants.|
|Herbaceous||A tall erect plant, the height of which reaches 3 meters or more. The leaves are round, very large. The flowers are simple, single, from white to crimson, depending on the variety.||Garden variety, which is recommended to be grown in open ground. For flowering next year, total pruning of stems to soil level is required.|
|Marsh||The most beautiful variety. It differs in very large inflorescences of pink or red color with a dark spot at the corolla and glossy corrugated leaves along the edge.||Perennial that can be grown at home and in the open ground. Garden hibiscus tolerates significant frosts well, and therefore can be successfully grown in Siberia and other regions with a sharply continental climate.|
|Hybrid||Very effective plant with large flowers of various shades. The height of the species reaches one and a half meters, but with proper formation, the flower can be grown in the form of a compact bush.||It is grown on the street only in summer, and in winter it is placed in pots and “resting” in cool greenhouses or closer to a cold window. With wintering in the garden, cultivation is possible only on the Black Sea coast. Indoor is grown everywhere.|
|Chinese||Ornamental tall shrub with jagged egg-shaped leaves and very large flowers of various shades - from yellow to dark red. It features long flowering.||It is recommended to grow this species at home or in specially equipped greenhouses.|
|Sour||Thickened annual shrub with a lignified base. The leaves are long, single flowers, located in the axils of leaf plates of various colors. It blooms all summer, after which it gradually dies.||Suitable for growing in the garden, but is sometimes used for landscaping, most often - open verandas and arbors.|
|Hibiscus Drummond||A medium-tall perennial shrub with three-bladed leaves corrugated along the edge and flowers of red or dark pink flowers.||Suitable for growing at home. It is grown in open ground only in the warm season as a tub plant.|
In addition to the listed species, edible hibiscus, which is called okra in botany, has also gained distribution in Russia. This dwarf annual plant is covered with pubescence (it is on the stem and on leaf blades). Its leaves are five-lobed, very large, attached to the stems on long stalks. The flowers are large, yellowish-cream, solitary. In their place after flowering, pods are formed, which they eat.
Hibiscus: growing and caring
Of the enormous number of varieties among Russian lovers of Chinese roses, the following were most popular:
|Youth||Hybrid||Bright pink flowers with a white bottom have a shape resembling tulips|
|San remo||Chinese||Pure white bell-shaped flowers on a background of dark green glossy foliage|
|Porto||Chinese||Flowers of red color, monophonic over the entire area of the petal|
|Parple Majestic||Chinese||Very beautiful purple flower with white speck and corrugated edge|
|Borias||Chinese||Lemon-white very large flower with a burgundy spot at the corolla and corrugated edges of the petals|
|William R. Smith||Syrian||Simple white flowers with a red center|
|Joan of Arc||Syrian||Terry large flowers, as they bloom, change color from cream to snow-white|
This is not a complete list of varieties that can be safely added to the list of classical residents of Russian plots and houses. All of them differ in relatively good resistance to adverse conditions, however, for successful cultivation they need the vigilant care of the grower.
Hibiscus care depends on their type and type of cultivation - on the street or in the house. Despite the small differences, they all love the abundance of light and heat, as in nature they grow in a warm climate. Due to the fact that in a natural place of growth, hibiscus prefer to settle near shrubs, it is undesirable for a long time to stay plants under the scorching rays of the sun. At noon, a small shadow from the surrounding vegetation should fall on them, or, in the case of growing at home, they should be shaded with a screen or curtain.
Hibiscus loves space, and therefore, indoors or outdoors, he should bathe in air currents. However, it should be borne in mind that the plant can easily get sick from cold drafts and gusts of the northern cold wind. That is why it is better to place a home copy not under the window itself, but a garden one - on the south side near solid fences or walls. The air temperature should be high enough. So, indoor Chinese roses grow best at temperatures from 20 to 25 degrees, and during the rest period it should be reduced to 15-18 degrees. Most garden specimens are well tolerated by short-term frosts and Russian winters. Their roots are not damaged even when the temperature drops to -30 degrees.
No less important for hibiscus and humidity. In areas where they grow in the wild, a tropical atmosphere reigns, which is characterized by a high moisture content in the air. So that the flower in the open ground and in the house feels good, it is recommended to constantly moisten the air. At home, you can implement this condition by spraying or installing next to the plates, filled with water.
In the garden, it is recommended to plant hibiscus near ponds or small fountains, or water them more often by sprinkling. But plants have a negative soil moisture. They need to be watered only after the topsoil has dried to a depth of about 2-3 cm. If representatives of this family are grown in open ground, then they need to be watered no more than twice a week.
Hibiscus should be fed no matter where they are grown, no more than three times a month. At the same time, it is recommended to alternate mineral fertilizers with organic. These top dressings need to be added since the beginning of spring, and in winter the plant should be switched to a phosphorus-potassium "diet" in order to prolong flowering.
Transplantation is only required for indoor hibiscus, which grows in the cramped conditions of a pot or tub. Despite the fact that the flower forms ovaries better when its roots are cramped, a long stay in one container can damage it. The reason for this is the gradual salinization of the soil. You can avoid problems with the culture by ordinary transshipment in a slightly more spacious pot once every 2-3 years.
If the plants are large, and it is impossible to transship, in the pot they simply replace the topsoil with fresh nutrient mixture.
The best time for transplanting or transhipment is autumn or early spring.when the plant is still at rest. In addition, total pruning of young plants can be carried out, and the apical cuttings can be used for reproduction. They can be rooted in ordinary greenhouses from a pot and a can into which sand and peat mixture is poured at 2/3 of the height.
In a warm room on the bottom of the cuttings, roots appear within 4-5 weeks. After the shoots appear, it is recommended to pinch the central one, and plant the plant in an individual container. Indoor hibiscus seeds for breeding are rarely used due to the complexity of the germination process. They have a good germination capacity, and the plants obtained from them begin to bloom no earlier than 2 years after planting.
Garden hibiscus is propagated by cuttings in the summer, but seed propagation is best done in the winter, because even with daily soaking in a solution of stimulants, seeds begin to germinate only 5-6 weeks after sowing. At the same time, the container with them must be kept in a very warm room and sprayed on the soil daily. Planting in the open ground already grown plants should be carried out in May or June.
Possible growing problems
Hibiscus is loved not only by flower growers and gardeners, but also a variety of pests and plant infections. When growing a flower, you can also encounter problems, the presence of which is due to a violation of agricultural technology. Eliminating any "ailments" in the Chinese rose or other varieties of hibiscus is very simple. The most important thing is to identify the source of the problem.
|Problem||Reason for occurrence||How to solve|
|Yellowing leaves, lack of buds||Lack of light and excess moisture in the soil||Move to a lighter place and reduce watering|
|Falling unopened buds||Lack of moisture and cold air||Move to a warm room, increase watering|
|Leaves fall, new ones grow with chlorosis||Overdrying, lack of nitrogen in the soil||Spray more often, set the pot next to water, additionally fertilize with nitrogen and iron|
|Stains on dirty pink foliage||Excess nutrients||Stop feeding|
|Withering of individual shoots||Sucking pests - thrips, scale insects||Actellic and soap solution|
Why is hibiscus called the flower of death
Along with such popular names as red sorrel, mallow of Venice and Sudanese rose, the nickname of hibiscus "flower of death" does not sound very encouraging. Such an idea of a flower does not reign among all peoples. So, in India, it is customary to weave its blossoming buds into wedding wreaths; on the island of Haiti, it symbolizes girlish beauty. AND only in some countries they say that a plant can bring death to its owner or to any member of its family.
First of all, such thoughts of people are prompted by the red color of flowers that is common among hibiscus species. This feature served as a belief that the plant begins to bloom shortly before someone sheds blood. However, such a superstition is easy to refute by the fact that in a Chinese rose, flowers can be lilac, white, or even bright yellow.
How to plant hibiscus
Followers of some magic schools claim that the tree-shaped hibiscus grown in a room can draw out not only positive energy from people, but also health. Others, on the contrary, argue that the flower is not dangerous, but only warns its owners of a serious illness. For example, there is a sign according to which a plant discards leaves if there is a terminally ill person in the house. Moreover, the potential "deceased" may not feel the symptoms of the disease.
In a word, there are a lot of beliefs and signs associated with hibiscus. And not in all countries, his presence in the house is perceived as a threat to the health and life of people. Moreover, from these supposedly deadly flowers they make magnificent karkade tea, which is famous for its beneficial properties.