The modern gardener has very little time for work at his summer cottage. Many manage to get to the garden only on weekends, as they are busy at their main work all week.
Naturally, it is especially important for such people to correctly allocate time and effort to work in their garden, so that they can manage to get things done on the site, and it would also be nice to relax after a hard week. So is there no way to work in the garden less, while getting good crops ? Is it possible to simplify or completely omit any of the garden work?
At the time, Galina Aleksandrovna Kizima, a gardener and gardener with 52 years of experience, took up the solution to this problem. Having once acquired her own plot of land, she, as they say, “went headlong” into this new business for her. Having spent years studying the tricks of gardening, she gathered together the experience gained by many gardeners and practitioners. And she managed to find out a very important thing: the most labor-intensive work on the site is possible significantly reduce. Let’s figure out how to achieve this and why this is not only possible, but also the only right one.
To begin with, we will learn the following:
To successfully engage in agriculture, while saving time and effort, it is necessary to fundamentally reconsider your attitude to working on the "six hundred square meters" and to develop completely new principles for gardening.
Principle number 1: DO NOT dig!
Let's first understand why digging is harmful? There are at least 5 reasons why you should not do this.
First reason consists in the following: we are accustomed to consider the earth as something like inanimate matter.
But the soil is a very complex living organism, densely populated by microorganisms and lower animal organisms, for example, such as earthworms. And between them there are their own established laws of hostel.
In the upper layer of soil, at a depth of about 5-20 cm, micro fungi and bacteria live, which need oxygen for life. In the lower layer, at a depth of about 20-40 cm, bacteria live for which oxygen is harmful. They need carbon dioxide.
When digging to the depth of a bayonet of a shovel, turning the layer, we swap layers. And each type of microorganism is in an unfavorable environment. Most of them die.
The soil, devoid of microorganisms, becomes dead and loses its fertility. Indeed, this very fertility of the soil is created and supported by microorganisms and earthworms that inhabit the earth.
The soil will remain dead until the restoration of its population on each floor. In addition, the soil, losing its inhabitants, together with them loses its structure, and therefore is destroyed. Such soil is washed away by rains and blown away by winds.
The second reason, which you should not dig and plow with turning over the earth layer, is as follows: when digging the soil, we break all the microchannels through which moisture and air penetrate the arable layer. As a result, neither moisture nor air enters the zone of sucking roots, and then the normal nutrition of the plants is disturbed.
Usually such soil during rains turns into a viscous substance like clay, and after drying it turns into real reinforced concrete. The roots literally choke, the plant weakens. What a harvest there is.
How are these microchannels formed in the soil? The fact is that the root system of plants is huge. It not only goes deep (sometimes up to 5 meters), but also widely branches in all directions. And each of these roots is covered with hundreds of thousands of sucking hairs. As a result, every inch of land is literally riddled with these hairs. When the aerial part of the plant dies, soil microorganisms begin to eat up the remains of the roots. As a result, microscopic channels are formed through which moisture penetrates into the soil. The soil absorbs moisture, and air rushes through the formed voids-channels into the earth.
In addition, there are moves that make worms in the soil. And they also serve as channels for water and air, only larger. The roots of the next generation of plants easily penetrate all these passages deep into the soil.
We are strongly recommended to do autumn digging of the soil. But thereby we completely violate the water and air exchange system, replacing it with several large gaps. In the spring, with repeated digging, we finally destroy the channels created by the roots and bacteria. With this double treatment, the entire complex soil system is destroyed, while the soil itself is caked. Sometimes (in dry times) so much that you have to literally peck it.
Third reason, which you should not dig and plow, is very simple: during autumn digging, we bring all the seeds of weeds from the surface into the soil, where they remain until spring. And when re-digging in the spring, we take out the overwintered weed seeds back to the surface, which immediately begin to germinate.
Fourth reasonwhere soil should not be dug up is this: usually after digging we leave the soil surface “bare”, and this leads to drying out and destruction of its topmost layer. In addition, weeds immediately begin to take an open place under the sun.
You can’t leave the soil naked. It must not be dug up, but covered with any mulching material on top.
The easiest way to do this is how nature has long been invented. It covers the earth with organic debris. In the fall - fallen leaves and an aerial part of dead annuals. In spring - a young green shoot.
Why is she doing this? In the fall, in order to return the organic matter consumed by plants to the soil and protect the surface root system from frost. In the spring, to cover the surface from direct sunlight, protect the top layer from drying out and destruction.
Fifth reason consists in the following: when digging, the upper, most fertile part of the soil containing humus is scattered throughout the thickness of the excavated layer. Humus is blurred or smeared. And since it is already scarce in poor soils, the fertility of the upper layer almost completely disappears. Over time, humus "pops up" in the upper layer. But when will this still happen! Humus should be cherished and highly valued, and not destroyed by digging.
So what to do with soil if it cannot be dug? And it can and should be loosened. Instead of a shovel, use the Fokine plane cutter. It has a pointed end, which should be done with furrows. First along, then across, digging it into the soil by about 5 cm. Then, slightly dig the top layer with the flat part of the tool. If necessary, disassemble with a rake.
By the way, a rake can also be used to loosen the topsoil. A hand cultivator is best suited for such surface tillage. In addition to the wheels loosening the soil, it also has a cutting plate.
This work can be done with both a sharpened chopper and a strizhnik "Strizh", and other devices. They are now quite a lot on sale.
The only requirement for such tools is that they must be very well sharpened. And do not believe in self-sharpening. The tool must be sharpened before each use, then the work will go easily and quickly. And make sure that the tools do not go deeper into the soil below 5 cm, and that the layers do not mix. You can dig with an ordinary shovel, but only superficially.
Do not worry about the roots. They will find their way in deeper layers, penetrating the microchannels left over from the root system of previous plants.
So, you need not dig, but to loosen!
Principle No. 2: DO NOT weave!
How is that so? Everything will grow!
Do not weed - does not mean at all that you do not need to fight weeds. It is necessary to fight them just, otherwise these native children of nature will simply squeeze out our cultivated plants from the site.
So what to do? And you need to cut perennial weeds under the root! And most importantly, this must be done systematically. Weeds must be cut at the age when it is easiest to do, that is, with their height not exceeding 5-15 cm.
You can use Fokin’s plane cutter, already familiar to us, or the Swift striker, or any other device. And shave the weeds off the face of the earth. The best result is a slight deepening of 2-3 cm into the soil.
You just cut the weeds and leave them on the ground right there.
What does it give?
- At firstweed suppression occurs. No plant during the growing season can do without aerial parts for a long time. Roots that do not receive their share from the work of chlorophyll in green leaves are doomed to death. Of course, new stems will immediately go from the buds on the roots. And you them again under the root. Do not let them grow above 5-10 cm, otherwise the roots will have time to "recover". So, making 3-4 cuts per season, you will practically get rid of weeds.
Cut weeds should not be collected in compost. Leave them in place. Why? Yes, because with them you mulch the soil, and its top layer does not dry out and does not collapse.
- Secondly, this layer of weeds, gradually decaying, returns the soil to fertility.
- Thirdly, you get rid of the extra work of carrying weeds to compost.
- Fourth, you get even distribution over the area of compost rotted over the past year.
- Fifthly, the roots of the weeds left without the aerial part will die. Rotting, they will provide additional nutrition to the roots of cultural plantings. That is, you additionally enrich the soil with humus exactly as it happens in nature.
You can, of course, not cut, but just mow the weeds. But again, it is important to do this systematically, preventing them from growing too tall.
And why still should not weed? After all, if weeding is systematic, then there will be no weeds too?
The difference is as follows: by cutting off the growth point underground, or by mowing the aerial part, you cause the same stem to re-grow. One. And as soon as you dig up or vomit the weed, then on all the scraps of the root system remaining in the soil, the buds of renewal will immediately wake up. And this will provoke the growth of a whole horde of weeds instead of one.
Oh well. We have learned how to deal with perennial rhizome weeds. But what about weed seeds on vegetable beds? Is there anyway without weeding?
But no. It turns out that on the beds they can be heavily pressed. In any case, it is quite possible to do without the tedious hours of weeding. For this, all we need to grow weeds on the beds in advance. Yes Yes!
- In early spring, before the last snow melts, scatter ash or peat into the beds to slightly blacken the remaining snow. Then cover the beds with bits of old film, spread over the poles so that the film does not bulge and the wind blows.
- Under the film layer, blackened snow on the beds quickly melts, the surface layer of the soil warms up, and weeds quickly emerge from it. This will happen in about 10-12 days. If after two weeks you visit your site and see that the weeds have sprouted, remove the film, loosen the topsoil and leave the beds open for a day. Young shoots of weeds will die. At this time, the seedlings of the weeds are still too weak, so they die from only loosening.
- After you plow up the first seedlings of weeds, wait a day and again cover the beds with foil. Leave the beds under the film for another 1-2 weeks.
- Arriving at the site for the second time, you will again see seedlings of weeds under the film. It sprouted seeds from deeper layers of the soil. Repeat the same operation again.
- After a day, you can spend on the beds rid of weeds, sowing cultivated seeds. In this case, you must understand that such a bed before sowing does not dig! Otherwise, you will again bring weed seeds from the lower layers to the surface. And they will ascend safely.
The work of pre-growing weeds in the garden is small and not at all difficult. Just do it on time.
So, weeding is the worst and most inefficient way of weed control.
Principle 3: DO NOT WATER!
With the onset of the evening, buckets are rattling in summer cottages, and pumps are started. Water murmurs everywhere. This is like a generally accepted undeniable ritual. But watering work is one of the most labor-intensive! Even if you use a pump.
Let’s think, do plants really need so much water? And if anyone needs it, then how to do it in order to facilitate and simplify their work?
Let us remember one simple thesis: it is better to keep water in the soil than to pour it there endlessly. Can this be done? Easily, if you do not allow moisture to evaporate from the surface of the earth.
From this we must immediately conclude, by the way, well-known to all, the soil must be protected from moisture evaporation from its surface. To do this, the surface of the soil should be covered. It's called mulching.
You can use a lot to mulch. For example, sawdust. Let them lie down for a year or two - and mulch. If there is coniferous forest nearby, dial needles. But do not forget to add to them either ash, or dolomite, or lime, or chalk. Because the needles strongly acidify the soil.
Good mulch riding peat. But it also acidifies the soil, so deoxidants will have to be added. Can be mulched non-woven covering materials (spanbond, lutrasil)but only if the material is black.
Can be used cardboard and even plain newspapersfolded in several layers and glued together in the cloth with ordinary tape. In the greenhouse, the soil can be mulched crumpled newspapers.
In the first, hottest spring weeks, mulches are excellent fallen autumn leaves. So do not clean them in the spring for the sake of beauty and cleanliness. The awakened worms themselves will drag them into their burrows and process them into humus with the help of overwintered microorganisms.
So how do you mulch the beds? And so, you can not water them at all? Well, you won’t not be able to water it at all, but there are some considerations for saving energy on watering.
The fact is that not all cultures are as helpless as we imagine. They can be divided conditionally into four groups:
- We attribute to the first those residents of the beds who do not know how to extract moisture and spend it uneconomically. This is cabbage, cucumber, salad, radish.
- The second group includes those plants that poorly extract water, but spend it economically. In this group are onions and garlic.
- The third group of plants produces water well, but spends it uneconomically. These plants include beets and swede.
- And the last, largest and most adapted group is able to get water well and spend it economically. These are peppers, tomatoes, carrots, parsley, zucchini, pumpkin, melon, watermelon.
Hence the watering norms. Most of all, plants that belong to the first and third groups need regular watering. And least of all, those in the last group need moisture. Generally speaking, they can not be watered at all all summer, if something is done when they are planted in place.
For example, tomatoes. In a recess made before planting seedlings, add a third of a teaspoon of the dust fraction of the AVA fertilizer and a dessert spoon of double granular superphosphate. Gradually pour 4-5 liters of water into the well. After that, plant seedlings, water, lightly spud it and mulch it well. That's all. No top dressing, no watering will no longer be required all summer. Except for the time when there is a long cold weather.
At a temperature below twelve degrees of heat, standing for a week, the plant begins to experience a sharp starvation, because the root system does not work. In this case, you should feed the plants on the leaves. It is best to use a solution of one of the following drugs: Florist, Aquadon-micro, Uniflor-Rost or Uniflor-bud.
Pepper. Pour a third of a teaspoon of AVA fertilizer powder into the well for planting, add a dessert spoon of any chlorine-free potash fertilizer, then add half a glass of gel prepared from Aquadon or hydrogel to the planting hole. Plant seedlings. Pour, squeeze and mulch. That’s all, too.
Only watering once every three weeks in hot weather is required. In wet or cool weather, watering is not necessary. But foliar top dressing, like tomatoes, will be required. Otherwise, pepper will even drop leaves.
Carrot. Before sowing, water the furrows well with water from the kettle. If the spring is dry and there is not enough moisture in the soil, then on the eve of sowing in the evening, spill the garden well with water and immediately cover it with a film. Moisture under the film will be preserved and saturate the bed to its entire depth.
After sowing the furrow, seal the board. Cover the garden bed with a film to keep heat and moisture in the soil. After emergence, replace the film with lutrasil or spanbond, remove which only for weeding or thinning.
Meals will be enough for the whole season. Do watering only in dry weather right on Lutrasil in the evening. And only until a bunch of 4-5 leaves appears. From this moment, a root crop forms in carrots, and it ceases to need a lot of moisture. Its central root extends far into the soil, and there is moisture there.
So, to get rid of problems with watering and top dressing in the garden, you need to show some ingenuity. The simplest thing is to keep moisture from evaporating from the soil. To do this, the soil should be loosened, and even better - mulched.
The tips that Galina Aleksandrovna Kizima generously shares, have justified themselves in her personal experience, as well as in the practice of her many followers and students. And Galina Alexandrovna accumulated so much knowledge that she decided to put them together and capture her experience with the help of video. As a result, there was a visual, very informative manual for gardeners, gardeners, the video course "Garden without the hassle."
These materials helped more than a dozen people to facilitate and simplify work in the garden, save their time and energy. Take a closer look at the content of this unique author’s course. To do this, you need to click on the link: //ogorod-net-hlopot.ru. It’s better to see everything with your own eyes.