In recent years, Toro blueberries have been especially popular among shrubbery plants among gardeners; the description of this variety allows us to prevent simple mistakes during plant growth. Blueberry is a universal berry, it can be eaten fresh or used for freezing or canning. When choosing a garden blueberry, one should take into account not only external features, but also know the detailed description of the varieties to resistance to frost, preferences for irrigation, soil and fertilizers, and whether it can grow in the garden.
Description and landing
There are 3 types of blueberry varieties:
- medium height;
The tall variety includes Toro blueberries. The height of the bush reaches about 2 meters. The berries are large and dense, have a pleasant aroma and taste. Berries have a smooth blue color. The fruits ripen in late summer. This variety tolerates cold well, is not susceptible to viral diseases and fungi.
Seedlings for planting should not be less than 50 cm long. The optimal time for planting is the beginning of autumn or early spring. When planting two-year-old plants, choose any convenient time, since the root system of blueberries has already managed to harden and will quickly survive minor damage.
The key to a rich harvest is to plant the plant in acidic soil. Soil acidity should be at least 3.5-5 Np. Otherwise, choose a combination of peat, sand and pine needles. The earth should be loose and freely pass moisture and air. For landing, choose an open, calm and well-lit area.
There are 2 ways to plant a plant: in a pit and on a comb. In the first case, seedlings should be planted in alkaline or neutral soil. It is necessary to prepare special pits 50x50, the depth of which is about 40-50 cm. The side walls of the pit must be covered with a transparent film, and a substrate of coniferous sawdust, sand and peat should be poured onto the bottom. You should also fertilize the earth with coniferous humus.
In the event that the soil does not allow water and air to pass through well, then garden blueberries should be planted in the second way. To plant a plant on the ridge, you must first remove the topsoil. This land needs to be scattered around the landing site. Thus, a small hole is formed in which peat, sawdust and sand are poured. In a formed hill we plant a plant.
There should be a distance of at least 1.5 m between the blueberry bushes. Try not to plant seedlings next to other fruit and berry plants.
How to care for a plant
After planting, blueberries need care. For a good harvest, garden blueberry flowers must first be removed. Proper plant care involves mulching the soil. In this case, coniferous sawdust and pine bark can be used. This will keep soil moisture and prevent weeds. In order for the bush of blueberries to take root and bear fruit well, the layer of mulch should be at least 10 cm thick.
Do not forget about watering. It should be sufficient and regular.
Blueberries are one of the few plants that does not need organic fertilizers. Moreover, manure and compost can provoke plant diseases. When planting blueberries, mineral fertilizers are added to the soil. Subsequent dressing should be carried out no more than 1 time per year. Top dressing should contain superphosphate, potassium sulfate and ammonium. As fertilizer, nitroammophos can be used.
After flowering, clusters of berries appear on the plant, which ripen within 4-5 weeks.
During this period, birds pose a special threat to the bush. To prevent crop loss, the plant should be covered with a special mesh. After harvesting, the net must be removed.
For the winter, blueberry bushes must be covered. A particular danger to shrubs is the lack of snow cover. With such a winter, the plant is able to withstand -25 degrees. If the bushes are covered with snow, then the plant is not afraid of severe frost and it can withstand -40 degrees.
Blueberry Disease and Treatment
If the plant turns yellow during the growing season, this indicates a nutrient deficiency. In some cases, yellowed leaves are the result of garden blueberry disease.
Perhaps the most common cause of yellowing of the leaves is chlorosis, that is, a low level of chlorophyll in the plant. Chlorosis can provoke a damaged root system, poor drainage or a high level of soil acidity. Thus, the plant is not able to obtain the necessary nutrients. In this case, it is necessary to detect the cause and eliminate it.
If the plant has variegated leaves, then this indicates the presence of a virus. If you do not take measures in time, then the plant may die. The virus causes a circadian, therefore, in the first place, you should get rid of it and spray the bush with an insecticide spray. After that, you can remove the damaged parts of the plant to prevent the spread of the virus.
Among fungal diseases, fruit mummification is widespread. In this case, the berries develop to full size, and then dry out and fall off. Affected berries should be picked by hand. The plant should be treated with urea in the spring, which will prevent infection of the berries.
Gray rot can affect the fruits of blueberries. A gray fluff forms on the berries. The fungal mycelium accumulates on the surface of the soil and is subsequently carried by the wind to other plants. Gray rot provides a particular danger in wet and cool weather. Fight this fungal disease immediately after the first signs of the disease appear. It is recommended to use systemic fungicides, timely cut bushes.
Excessive humidity can lead to the formation of fungal diseases, for example, cancer of the stem, botrytis, phomopsis, moniliosis, septoria, etc. For preventive purposes, garden blueberry bushes can be sprayed with Bordeaux mixture.