In spring, the time comes to prepare the land for planting, and one of the most important stages of work is soil fertilization. And how to fertilize the earth in spring, if there is no manure - the question that gardeners often ask at this time.
Optimal dates for fertilizing the soil in spring
Many summer residents begin to fertilize the land in the fall, before it snows. Often questions are raised as to what fertilizers should be applied precisely in the spring time, and at what time it is better to add them.
It is interesting that many experts believe: early spring is the best period when you can apply most of the known fertilizers. It is especially important at this time to make nitrogen fertilizers (ammonia, ammonium nitrate) and superphosphates. In doing so, the following rules must be considered:
- You should focus not on calendar dates, but on specific signs, since in different years the spring season may be delayed or, on the contrary, arrive earlier than usual. First of all, semi-melted snow and melt water should completely leave the garden (usually this occurs in the 2nd half of April). If you start applying up to this point, the result will be ineffective - since many fertilizers dissolve well in water, they will leave together with it, and when everything dries in the country, the soil will lose useful substances.
- Of great importance is the fact for which particular crops are fed. So, in the case of fruit trees, fertilizers can be applied a little earlier than for other crops - their powerful root system can receive nutrients even at a time when the soil in the lower part of the trunk has not yet completely melted.
- In the case of vegetables and flowers, fertilizing on the beds is carried out right before planting (per day).
Advantages and rules of the spring application of manure as fertilizer
It is often believed that it is better to feed the earth with manure in the fall, because during the fall and winter it will have time to decompose well and give all the useful substances to the ground. But there are pluses to using it in early spring.
The fact is that overripe manure (humus), decomposing in the soil, will retain heat, which is very necessary for seedlings that have just been placed on beds. Another important detail is that manure can lose its value from frost. For this reason, it is even necessary to store it in the barn and carefully wrap it.
In this case, the introduction of manure requires compliance with several important rules:
- It is better to make manure only in a mature, overripe form - because it is in this condition that it preserves the maximum amount of valuable components.
- You need to fertilize with manure no more than once every 3 years.
- Fertilizer should be applied to the soil to a depth of 15-20 cm, and not scattered on its surface.
- Do not rely on the principle: the more, the better. Even on non-chernozem soils, manure is applied in the amount of 5-6 kg per square meter of the surface of the earth.
How to fertilize trees in spring
How to fertilize the earth in spring if there is no manure
If spring has come, but there is no manure at hand, this is not a reason to refuse the sowing campaign. There are many different types of fertilizers (phosphate, nitrogen, universal, etc.), which significantly increase productivity and at the same time are affordable.
We use siderates
One of the interesting ways of fertilizing the soil is the use of green manure. This is the name of plants that are specially grown for subsequent grinding and placement in the ground to enrich it with nitrogen, to suppress the growth of weeds. These top dressings are also called green fertilizers.
- Legumes (alfalfa, soy, peas and many others). Special bacteria settle on their roots, which introduce a significant amount of nitrogen into the soil.
- Cruciferous (various varieties of mustard, rapeseed, radish, colza).
- Cereals (wheat, sorghum, rye, oats, etc.).
- Buckwheat, phacelia, etc.
The beneficial effects of these plants are due to the following reasons:
- During their flowering plants attract pollinating insects, which often eat flies harmful to the garden, aphids, etc.
- Their roots often grow greatly, penetrate deep into the earth, loosen it, so that it becomes more saturated with air.
- Some of these plants suppress plant diseases (e.g. wilting).
Siderates can be used not only in spring, but also at the end of summer or during a break in plantings for a year.
Mineral fertilizers for the garden
Mineral refers to inorganic fertilizing (i.e., those that do not contain organic matter). Most often, they differ in the predominance of a single chemical element (potash, nitrogen, etc.), but can also be complex (mixture of fertilizers).
Each species has its own benefit for plants:
- Nitrogen fertilizers are easily absorbed by both the earth and crops, as they dissolve very well even in cold water. They contain easily digestible forms of nitrogen in their composition, thanks to which plants quickly gain weight, grow efficiently and without delay.
- Phosphate top dressings are presented in the form of phosphate rock, precipitate, superphosphates. They contain phosphorus, which is also an important element and has a beneficial effect on plant growth. At the same time, phosphorus fertilizers dissolve in water much worse than nitrogen. For example, phosphorite flour is used more often on acidic soils, because in these cases phosphorus goes into a simpler form for assimilation.
- Potassium nitrate has the chemical name potassium nitrate. It is very soluble in water. It has a good effect on the growth of plants, as well as on the taste and juiciness of their fruits.
In general, plants on unfertilized soil not only grow worse, but also have a greater risk of suffering from infectious diseases or acquire other deviations (poor formation of the ovary and fetus, falling flowers, small fruits, etc.).
What fertilizers to apply in spring
Universal top dressing
Universal fertilizers have a different chemical composition and have a complex effect on plant organisms. Here are some examples of such dressings:
- Organomineral fertilizer "Universal" consists of half organic and half inorganic components. It contains many substances necessary for plant growth and preservation of its health. At the same time, it also regulates the level of nitrates in the soil, not allowing them to accumulate in excess. Accordingly, this has a positive effect on cultures.
- Ammophos contains up to half the mass of phosphorus and about 10-15% nitrogen in an easily digestible form. Accordingly, it provides the plant with a beneficial effect of both of these elements.
- Ammofoska It contains not only nitrogen and phosphorus, but also potassium in approximately the same ratio.
In addition, universal feeding is not necessary to buy in the store. They can be found among completely affordable home remedies. Here are some examples:
- Ash used to fertilize the soil since ancient times. It is valuable in that it contains potassium, calcium, iron and phosphorus. It is universal not only in action, but also in the coverage of crops - it can be used on almost any garden beds, as well as in a garden flower garden.
- Infusions of herbs used on the basis of mowed weeds. They are placed in large containers, poured with boiling water and insisted for several days (up to 2 weeks). Then the mixture is filtered, the solid components are discarded, and the liquid is diluted in a ratio of 1 to 10. Any culture can also be watered with this solution. It is better to do evening watering sessions.
What organic fertilizers to apply to the soil before planting
The most common organic fertilizers other than manure include:
Food industry waste and household waste are also often used.
Unlike minerals, organic substances are more specific, and they need to be introduced taking into account the characteristics of a particular culture.
So, for example, perennial vegetables (horseradish, Jerusalem artichoke, asparagus, rhubarb) like to bring in organic matter immediately before planting.
At the same time, annual carrots, radishes, tomatoes, beets and others require very small amounts of these top dressings. Sometimes it is even better to fertilize them with inorganic.
It is especially important to apply organic fertilizers before planting fruit trees. If the fruits are pome fruits, then fertilizers need to be added more, if the fruits with a seed - less. In this case, you need to regularly feed the trees and during the growth.
How to feed indoor plants in spring
With the advent of spring, one should not forget about fertilizing indoor plants. Potted soil should be fertilized more often than in the garden, since it is devoid of natural conditions and does not actually participate in the cycle of elements, which provides a balance of the content of various useful components.
In spring, pets are especially in need of top dressing. as the increase in daylight stimulates their growth. Mostly nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers are used; also as organic matter can be used feces of domestic animals mixed with straw or sawdust. In this case, you need to adhere to some rules:
- if the plant has just been replanted, then in 1 month it is undesirable to fertilize it;
- Do not fertilize cacti with organics;
- during dormancy, it is better not to make any fertilizers;
- if the roots of the plant rot, fertilizing is not recommended.
How to fertilize strawberries
The main condition for using any fertilizer is the exact following of the instructions. Excessive fertilizing is sometimes even more dangerous than their absence. Try to follow the rules and take good care of your green friends!