Thuja is a coniferous plant from the Cypress family. It is used as a decorative hedge, it is used to equip alpine hills, alleys, paths, and together with other plants it creates an original design of flower beds and flower beds. We will talk about planting a thuja and caring for it in the open ground in this article.
Shrub native to America. Since it is unpretentious to soil, resistant to drought, it undergoes pruning well, spread from the Urals to Siberia.
Thuja: characteristics of the main species
Thuja grow in the form of trees and shrubs, depending on the type of plant. There are six main types of thuja: western, folded, eastern, Japanese, Korean, Chinese. Consider the table frequently encountered.
Type of thuja
The most common type among landscape designers and summer residents. Homeland - North America. The plant is evergreen, like other species of thuja. It is found on clay soils. It grows from 12 m to 20 m. It withstands minimal temperatures (up to -36 degrees).
There are three forms that are common in decorative gardening: weeping, dwarf, variegated. The crown is pyramidal and spherical in shape. Used in the manufacture of sleepers, pillars and furniture. Amber variety and others are popular in folk and traditional medicine, in perfumery
The tree grows up to 75 m., The trunk diameter reaches 2.5 m. The crown takes the form of a cone or pyramid. The main feature is that it does not tolerate temperature changes during the change of day and night. It grows on marshy soil and on moist coasts.
The color of the foliage is saturated dark green, the bark is reddish brown. In winter, asks for shelter. Found its applications in the decoration of plots, parks and coasts. This species is not adapted for survival in Siberia.
Eastern (Biota, Ploskovetochnik)
China is considered the homeland. Grows on the slopes of the mountains, gives preference to dry, loose soils. There are trees up to 10 m high. In adverse conditions it can take the form of a bush. Has an ovoid or pyramidal crown. Easily survives in dry climates.
Cultural forms are distinguished by bright, variegated, silver and gold, green leaves. Seeds reach 5 mm. Flowering is observed for two months with the advent of spring. Oriental thuja is called the "tree of life", because, having healing properties, it saves from many diseases. This species produces more volatile than any other.
Thuja: planting and care in the open ground
Thuja is unpretentious to the ground. Experts recommend using the following composition when planting on the street: mix in equal parts turf land, peat and sand. With a superficial arrangement of the root system of the shrub, loose soil is preferable for it.
Landing is carried out in the spring, when frosts have passed. Thuja propagates by seeds and cuttings. When planting seeds, the plant does not inherit maternal genes. Provided that you want to get a plant of a certain type and variety, this method will not work. Having planted seedlings, the confidence that you will be pleased with your chosen plant increases.
It is easy to take care of the thuja correctly: regular watering, spraying, removing weeds and surface loosening of the soil will do you good. Observing simple rules, you will achieve high performance when growing thuja.
Planting Material Selection Criteria
When buying thaw in nurseries in ready-made containers, it is good to be able to inspect the root system. The roots are yellowish brown - the plant has wintered more than once in these containers. This is not worth taking. If you have white roots, be aware that this planting material is healthy. Inspect the plant itself. If yellowed leaves or signs of decay of the bark are found, it is better to refuse the purchase.
Coniferous spruce branches should have a saturated glossy green tint. Twigs should not contain blotches of a different color, if this parameter does not match the plant variety. Gently rub the twig with your fingers, make sure that the coniferous one emits its characteristic aroma.
Thuja is planted in the hole, deepening the roots by 10-15 cm. Choose a shaded place, taking into account growth and growth. Make a hole with the diameter of the crown of an adult plant. Before planting, apply organic fertilizer or nitrophos. In this case, you do not have to fertilize the plant for two years.
The calculation of the feeding is as follows: 30-40 gr. Nitrofoski bring in the trunk circle. Be sure to close the fertilizer into the ground. Water abundantly. Do not try to create a swamp. Make a recess to the length of the roots. The place for tui is ready.
Dates and technology of planting thuja in spring
The end of April - the beginning of May is the perfect time to land. We decided to propagate the thawed one by the method of cuttings - take a sapling with the presence of a “heel” cut at an angle of 45 degrees. Dig 3-4 cm into the ground and plant it next season. Bought a plant in a nursery or horticultural store, feel free to send it to the prepared hole by transshipment. Try not to damage the root system. If the roots are tightly pressed, gently straighten. So that the roots take root well, use the drug Kornevin. With its help, the plant will more easily survive stress and rooting will not become a problem.
You need to arrange the finished seedling at ground level. Keep in mind that after the first watering, the earth will settle 3-4 cm. It is important not to bury the root neck. This is the place of transition of the main trunk to the roots. Place the plant so that the root neck remains at the level of the soil after the soil has settled.
How to plant a thuja
When planting, observe the relative humidity of the soil. Spill the plant, mulch the trunk circle. As a mulch, coniferous litter is ideal. He will acidify the earth and in the spring will come out as a specialized fertilizer. You can use peat, sawdust and land.
Some summer residents, because of their employment, do not have time in the spring and postpone the planting of the thuja in late autumn. You can do this, and thuja takes root. But remember that having gained strength from spring to autumn, it will be easier for the plant to suffer winter frosts. It will have time to grow stronger and increase growth.
Planting both in early spring and late autumn, if in doubt about the absence of freezing, cover the thaw. Build a small greenhouse from the film and improvised materials. Since conifers love moisture, it responds positively to such conditions.
Fertilizing and watering
If you have fertilized the soil before planting thuja, fertilizers can not be remembered for a year and a half - two boldly. After it is worth feeding with special mineral fertilizers for conifers. Use Epin several times a season. In the first years of the thuja in your garden, it will affect growth and make up for all the physiological needs of the plant. Fertilize with copious amounts of organics is not worth it, but about minerals: phosphorus, potassium, manganese must be remembered.
It is advisable to water the thaw regularly. In dry and hot summers, water once or twice a week with a ten liter bucket for each plant. Do this work in the evenings or early mornings.
Thuja of any kind is a fan of spraying. By sprinkling from a hose or, if the plant is small, from a spray gun, spray in 3-4 days. You will notice how quickly an increase is formed with this care. In addition, the aroma emitted during this process is unlikely to leave anyone indifferent. Mulching the soil will protect the plant from a lack of moisture on hot days.
Crown haircut: shaping and curly
The shaping haircut, like the curly haircut, is carried out after the spring activation of plant growth. Remember the more shoots you cut, the more magnificent the thuja becomes. The crown becomes thicker with any haircut, since all juices should be distributed over the rest of it.
When forming the crown, pay attention to the type of plant. Do not try to make spherical or creeping out of a pyramidal thuja, and vice versa. No need to wait until the plant grows. Let it take root in the first year, boldly start “conjuring” from the second. Do shoot renewals annually. The best time is spring - summer. If you want to get a hedge, cut each season no more than 1/3 of the shoot. In the first five years, the length of the cut shoot should not exceed 10 cm.
Thuja responds well to pruning. Curly haircut is used in decorative landscape design. There are tree requirements for this pruning method:
- the plant must have a dense crown
- branch heavily
- recover quickly after pruning
- calmly carry the haircut
- The first pruning is done in the second year of life.
- In the third year, the tops are cut off and shaped.
- The formation of the sides is carried out in the fourth year. At the same time, the necessary width is laid.
- After gaining the necessary height maintain shape.
Carry out all trimming work with a sharp working tool, in safety glasses and special clothing.
How to trim a thuja
Preparing the plant for winter
Many varieties winter in the middle lane successfully. Summer residents should take care of only five points:
- Tall trees pull the branches wide. Otherwise, when snow enters the paws of the thuja, the latter are able to break off and lose their shape.
- Cover undersized species for the winter with cardboard, fir spruce branches.
- Thuja cannot be bent, after winter it is unlikely to take its original form.
- In the early years, build greenhouses. If you are sure that the snow layer exceeds 3-4 cm in your region. In the future, do not do this.
- Shade the plant. Avoid direct sunlight in winter and early spring. This effect will be affected by burns and damage to plants.
Carefully select a variety according to the climatic conditions of your region and problems with wintering can be avoided.
Features of growing thuja in the Urals
Due to frost and bright sun in the Urals, thuja receive burns. But it’s worth building a shelter in the form of an armor mesh and a spunbond, as the problem is solved. Do not hide for the winter, disappear. Western thuja spread. It is more resistant to frosty winters.
From freezing of the superficial root system drainage will save. During the preparation of the hole, lay crushed stone, pebbles, broken brick on the bottom. Water will not stagnate. It is especially worth paying attention to this for those who have close underground water on the site. Remember about watering regimes, pruning, top dressing. Thuja grows almost everywhere, and the Urals is no exception.
When to open thuja after winter
It is worth removing cover material after cold weather at the moment of steady warm weather, after severe freezing and before the sap flow of the main plants in your country house. Until you make sure that the spring sun stops burning, it is better to leave material such as spanbond. It has micro holes. Through them, the thuja will receive the necessary amount of air, and avoid burns. You can remove the lapnik, cardboard, but leave protection from the rays.
Thuja protection against diseases and pests
Thuja is susceptible to disease and pests. Consider the main ones and methods of struggle.
Timely carry out sanitary pruning and spraying with fungicides
To clean the bark from last year's dry parts and branches, spray with a solution of Fitoverm or Karbofos
Spray with Actellik or Karbofos before the appearance of the kidneys
Appears in places of stagnant water. Permanent irrigation with fungicidal preparations or getting rid of plants and changing soil
Subject to the norms and rules of planting, care and watering, you will get rid of a number of diseases of thuja. Provide her with the conditions and be satisfied.
How to breed thuja
Having considered the main criteria for planting, choosing a place, fertilizing, irrigation and pruning rules, you can grow thaw on your site without any worries. Remember the agricultural technology of conifers and methods of pest control. Enchanting coniferous aroma will contribute to good mood and vitality.