Bougainvillea is distinguished by good decorativeness due to graceful stems and bright inflorescences having a bizarre shape. Moreover, this flower can be used both for decorating rooms, apartments, verandas, and greenhouses, garden plots, open verandas.
Bougainvillea: A Biological Description
This flower is from the family Noctifolia, in total there are 12 different types of bougainvilleas. Under natural conditions, the habitat of this plant is the tropical forests of central and southern parts of America. Exactly in a humid and warm climate, bougainvillea grows and blooms.
Under natural conditions, the stems of the plant are liana-shaped, covered with thorns. Indoor bougainvilleas also have thorns - their breeders could not be removed.
In nature, these flowers can reach a height of 5 meters and above, and at home it is recommended that they be pruned regularly to keep the plant short and neat.
The shoots of this plant are strong and branched. In nature, a flower can reach large sizes, both in height and in width. The foliage is saturated emerald color, dense. The flowers themselves are small in size. Bracts in the amount of 3 pieces give beauty to this flower. It is these leaves that are painted in bright colors and give the plant a special decorative effect.
In nature, bougainvillea has a crimson or lilac color. However, indoor plants due to the efforts of breeders have orange, white, pink and many other colors. Flowers on this plant can appear from January to December.
How to grow bougainvillea at home
Varieties of bougainvillea for indoor or garden cultivation
The main varieties of this plant that can be bred indoors and in the garden are beautiful bougainvillea and naked bougainvillea.
Beautiful bougainvillea is a rapidly growing vine, the stems of which must be trimmed in a timely manner to form a moderately tall bush, then it can be safely kept at home. The stalks of bougainvillea are covered with thorns, as are the wild species of this flower. Its leaves are wide, oval, their length is up to 18 - 20 cm. Flowers along with bracts are collected at the ends of shoots. The colors of the bracts can be from pink to purple and violet. Flowers in this form begin to appear from the second decade of April to the second decade of October. But in the open ground, this variety can grow only in the Caucasus or Crimea.
Naked bougainvillea is also a vine plant, but in height can reach no more than 4.5 - 5 meters. But the spines on its shoots are rarer than on other species of bougainvillea. Foliage - ovoid, dense, glossy. The colors of this type of bougainvillea are from purple to white. These flowers look very beautiful not only as single plantings, but also in combination with other flowering plants.
To grow at home, breeders have bred a large number of different varieties of bougainvillea. The most famous of them:
- California Gold
- White Jamaica;
- Pink Singapore and a number of other varieties.
Bougainvillea indoor: home care
This flower propagates by cuttings, which are not completely lignified. Cuttings are dug into the soil, where they quickly give roots and begin to grow. After 1.5 months, rooted cuttings can be transplanted to a permanent place in the pots.
This plant has a powerful not only the upper part, but also the root system. Thanks to the developed root system, this plant can grow even on stony soil. Based on this, to fill the pot in which bougainvillea will grow, you should choose a dense soil composition, as well as provide good drainage. Shards, pieces of bricks or large expanded clay are usually taken as draining material..
Usually buy ready-made mixtures for plants grown in tubs, or prepare a similar substrate on their own. To do this, take:
- turf and sheet land in 3 parts;
- peat - 2 parts;
- fine river sand - 1 part.
Observing all the rules for caring for bougainvillea, you can achieve its flowering throughout almost the whole year. Usually the first buds on a plant appear in early November, and flowers appear on the shoots almost until the summer.
This plant is thermophilic, and only in winter can you lower the temperature in the room where the flower is located. Bougainvillea loves direct sunlight, so you need to place it on the windowsills, where there is enough sunlight throughout the day. The temperature in the room where the flower grows should be maintained within 24 - 25 ° С, and in the winter - in the region of 13 - 15 ° С.
In summer, the plant is most often taken out to a balcony or a loggia, but at the same time it is necessary to ensure that there is no wind. In winter, the flower should be in a cool, darkened room (about 13 ° C). If bougainvillea is warm in the winter, then it will continue to grow. When a flower "wakes up" from a state of rest and begins to grow, it is immediately transferred from a darkened room to the light. If the amount of daylight is not enough for the plant, additional lighting must be introduced. The flower should be in sunlight for at least half a day.
Water the plant regularly, avoiding excessive wetting of the soil or its drying out. Excess water is poured from the pan immediately. Water for irrigation should be at room temperature. In the summer, the flower is watered more often, in winter the number of waterings is reduced. Too much watering will immediately affect the flowers - they begin to wither and fall. The soil in the pot should be moderately moist, if the plant did not take most of the water out of the soil in a day, then the watering was plentiful.
The plant does not tolerate even a brief lack of water in the soil, so it can not be left without moisture, even if the family leaves for the weekend to rest. In this case, an irrigation system with the help of some automatic devices is thought out.
Since bougainvillea in vivo grows in conditions of high humidity, it should create similar conditions at home. In this case, the humidity in the room should be about 80%.
To create similar conditions around the flower, usually large containers are placed nearby, full of water, or more than half of the container is poured onto a pebble tray. It is also recommended that the foliage be sprayed regularly from the sprayer.especially if it’s a hot, dry summer. But it’s best to purchase any humidifier and set it to the recommended humidification. Such a humidifier is necessary if there are many plants from the tropics in the room.
As Bougainvillea grows very quickly even at home, so you need to transplant it often. In the first years after planting cuttings, this flower is transplanted once a year. But an adult plant should not be transplanted more often than once every three years. Such a frequent transplant is carried out because the root system of the flower grows very quickly, which fills the tub completely. And since this plant is not planted in too spacious pots, bougainvilleas, and a more frequent transplant is required than other indoor plants.
In an excessively large pot, in which bougainvillea is planted, water will stagnate after irrigation, which is harmful to this tropical flower. Therefore, when transplanting, each new flowerpot should be larger than the previous one by a couple of centimeters in diameter. However, all flowerpots should be high.
Cuttings of bougainvillea
How to care for bougainvillea in the garden
This plant is extremely thermophilic, requires a lot of space and sunlight. Such conditions in the open ground can be provided with bougainvillea only in the conditions of the Crimea and the Black Sea coast of our country.
And in other climatic zones, bougainvillea is taken out to the garden plot only in summer, when the air temperature is in the region of 20-23 ° С. And for the root system, the temperature of the earth is destructive below + 6 ° C. Therefore, bougainvillea is grown in winter in tubs, and only for the summer period the flowers are taken out to the garden, where they decorate the garden plot with their flowering.
Caring for this plant in the garden is no different from caring for a flower at home. Also you need to regularly water the plant, avoiding stagnation of water in the ground. A place for him must be chosen in direct sunlight so that there are no densely planted flowers and other cultivated plants around.
Use cases and rules for combining with other plants
Due to the fact that this plant in natural conditions can grow up to 5 meters and above, it is widely used to design hedges. These flowers also look good on trellises or other types of supports.
By pruning these plants, you can give the appearance of a tree, a wide bush or a liana plant, as well as almost any kind of vaults and other forms at the request of gardeners.
The basic rules for combining with other plants:
- other flowering plants suitable for the color scheme should be planted next to bougainvillea;
- plants that are planted next to this flower should not interfere with bougainlia to grow in height and width;
- Also, flowers should love sunlight and not tolerate stagnation of moisture in the soil.
Bougainvillea: diseases, pests and other growing problems
The main pests that can "settle" on the foliage of bougainvillea are aphids, mealybugs. When sweet secretions appear on the plant, a soot fungus can settle. The first sign of its appearance is blackening of foliage. To get rid of this fungus, diseased foliage should be removed, rinse the flower with a disinfectant solution and treat with an insecticide.
In addition, the plant may lose foliage if there are drafts in the room, or it has been carried out to fresh air, where a strong wind blows. In the event of stagnation of water in the soil, bougainvilleas begin to wither and fall off the flowers.
How to transplant bougainvillea
Growing bougainvillea at home or in the garden is not so difficult. The main thing is to remember what care this tropical flower requires. By following all the rules of care, you can achieve good growth and active flowering from bougainvillea.